Forage species are small fish and invertebrates that feed on smaller marine organisms such as plankton and are in turn eaten by many species of fish, sea birds, and marine mammals. Forage species play an important role in sustaining the productivity and structure of marine ecosystems by facilitating the transfer of energy from the lowest levels of the food chain to higher levels.
The Unmanaged Forage Omnibus Amendment prohibits the development of new, or expansion of existing, directed fisheries on unmanaged forage species until adequate scientific information is available to promote ecosystem sustainability. The amendment was approved by the Council in August 2016 and implemented by NOAA Fisheries in September 2017.
This is the first rule in the Atlantic to list forage species as ecosystem component species. The amendment implements management measures for 17 species and species groups (listed below) to prevent the expansion of directed commercial fisheries on these species in Mid-Atlantic federal waters.
Contact: Julia Beaty, Fishery Management Specialist - 302-526-5250, email@example.com
- Unmanaged Forage Omnibus Amendment - Includes an Environmental Assessment, Regulatory Impact Review, and Regulatory Flexibility Act Analysis
- Final Rule: Unmanaged Forage Omnibus Amendment
- Unmanaged Forage Species ID Guide
- NMFS Permit Holder Bulletins: Commercial Fishermen / Dealers
Summary of Measures
- Ecosystem Component Species: Designates 16 forage species and species groups as ecosystem components (ECs) in all of the Council’s fishery management plans (Note: chub mackerel are not included in the list of EC species)
- Possession Limit for EC Species: Establishes an incidental possession limit of 1,700 pounds for all EC species combined.
- Atlantic Chub Mackerel: Establishes an annual landing limit of 2.86 million pounds for chub mackerel. A 40,000 pound possession limit will be implemented after the annual landing limit is caught.
- Permits: Requires all commercial vessels and operators that catch and/or possess Mid-Atlantic forage species and/or Atlantic chub mackerel to be issued a commercial vessel and operator permit from NMFS.
- Transit Provisions: Allows a commercial vessel to transit the Mid-Atlantic Forage Species Management Unit (see map below) with an amount of Mid-Atlantic forage species or Atlantic chub mackerel on board that exceeds the possession limits to land in a port in a state that is outside of the Mid-Atlantic Forage Species Management Unit, provided that the fish were harvested outside of the Mid-Atlantic Forage Species Management Unit and that all gear is stowed and not available for immediate use while transiting.
- Reporting: Requires vessel operators and dealers to report the catch and sale of these species and species groups on existing vessel trip reports (logbooks) and dealer reports, respectively. VTR codes and species information can be found in the forage species identification guide.
Mid-Atlantic Forage Species Groups and Species
- Argentines/Smelt Herring
- Round Herring
- Scaled Sardine
- Atlantic Thread Herring
- Spanish Sardine
- Pearlsides/Deepsea Hatchetfish
- Sand Lances
- Atlantic Saury
- Unclassified Mollusks (Unmanaged Squids, Pteropods)
- Other Crustaceans/Shellfish (Copepods, Krill, Amphipods)
- Atlantic chub mackerel*
* NOTE: Atlantic chub mackerel is not designated as an ecosystem component species and is not included in the combined 1,700 possession limit.
The list below includes documents from all phases of action development from Council initiation through final rule. For information about the final, approved measures, please refer to the "Final Documents" section near the top of this page.
- Unmanaged Forage Species ID Guide, 8/25/2017
- Final Rule: Unmanaged Forage Omnibus Amendment
- Final Environmental Assessment, 8/25/2017
- NMFS letter regarding partial approval of Unmanaged Forage Omnibus Amendment, 6/19/2017
- Proposed Rule, 4/24/2017
- Unmanaged Forage Omnibus Amendment (Including an Environmental Assessment, Regulatory Impact Review, and Regulatory Flexibility Act Analysis), March 2017
- Press Release: Mid-Atlantic Council Approves Amendment to Protect Unmanaged Forage Species, 8/9/2016
- August 2016 Briefing Materials
- Public Hearing Materials, updated 7/5/2016
- Public Hearing Document
- Abbreviated public comment summary
- Full public comment summary
- Pew sign on letter with full list of signatures
- Wildlife Conservation Society visitor petition with full list of signatures
- Wildlife Conservation Society online action alert with full list of signatures
- Poems and drawings submitted by Wildlife Conservation Society - Part 1 / Part 2
- Images of pledge wall submitted by Wildlife Conservation Society
- Council-Approved List of Unmanaged Forage Taxa, updated 4/14/2016
- April 2016 Council Meeting
- February 2016 Council Meeting
- Draft Action Plan, 1/7/2016
- December 2015 Council Meeting:
- October 2015 Council Meeting:
- Scoping Document, 8/25/2015
- June 2015 Council Meeting:
- Memo on possible management alternatives to address motion, April 2015
- Press Release: Mid-Atlantic Council Initiates Action to Protect Unmanaged Forage Species, 12/17/14
- Forage Fish White Paper, November 2014
- Forage Fish Workshop, April 2013
- Papers discussed at December 2015 Council Meeting:
- Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses, Essington et al (2015)
- Environment drives forage productivity, Szuwalski and Hilborn (2015)
- Essington reply to Szuwalski and Hilborne (2015)
- Pacific Fishery Management Council action to protect unmanaged forage fish
- Little Fish, Big Impact – Pikitich et al., a report of the Lenfest Task Force
- The Global Contribution of Forage Fish - Pikitich et al.
- Impacts of Fishing Low-Trophic Level Species - Smith et al.
- Forage Fish: From Ecosystems to Markets – Alder et al.
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